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Names of Generics: Nirmatrelvir and ritonavir
Form of Dosage: Tablets, co-packaged for oral use
Drug Class: Antiviral combinations

What is Paxlovid?

Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir tablets packaged with tablets of ritonavir) is a medicine that has been approved by the FDA for adults suffering from mild to moderate COVID-19 and those who are at risk of progression to severe COVID-19. This could mean hospitalization or even death.

Paxlovid is available as an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to treat patients between the ages of 12 and 18 with mild to moderate COVID-19 who are at the highest risk of progression to severe COVID-19, which could lead to death or hospitalization.

Paxlovid should be administered as soon as possible following the diagnosis of COVID-19. It's taken to lessen the severity and frequency of symptoms or prevent an illness that is severe and could cause hospitalization or even death.

Paxlovid is a prescription drug that can be given to individuals by physicians, advanced-practice registered nurses, and physician assistants authorized or licensed under state law to prescribe medications. It can also be prescribed to an individual by a pharmacist licensed in the state of California, subject to certain conditions.

Paxlovid isn't approved or permitted for use as a preventative or post-exposure prophylaxis to aid in the treatment of COVID-19.

Similar/related drugs

Molnupiravir, Actemra, Remdesivir, Lagevrio, Nirmatrelvir, Ritonavir, and Tocilizumab

Before you take this drug

You shouldn't make use of Paxlovid when you have an allergy to its active components, nirmatrelvir or ritonavir, or any inactive components. Click here to see a complete description of Paxlovid ingredients.

Certain medications shouldn't be used in conjunction with Paxlovid, for example, those listed below.

  • Alfuzosin, colchicine;
  • Sildenafil (Revatio) is employed to treat hypertension in the pulmonary artery (PAH).
  • Pain medicine—pethidine, piroxicam, propoxyphene;
  • Antipsychotic medicine (lurasidone, pimozide, clozapine);
  • Ergot medicine: dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, methylergonovine;
  • Cholesterol-lowering medicine—lovastatin, simvastatin; or
  • A sedative—triazolam, oral midazolam.

Paxlovid should not be used immediately following the discontinuation of any of these medications:

  • rifampin;
  • John's Wort;
  • A cancer medicine—apalutamide;
  • Seizure medicine—carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and phenytoin.

Tell your doctor if:

  • You have liver problems or a liver illness such as hepatitis.
  • You have kidney problems.
  • If you're suffering from an HIV-1 disease,
  • You are nursing or pregnant. You are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Are you suffering from a long-term or severe disease.


Inform your doctor immediately if you're or get pregnant. It's not clear whether Paxlovid could harm your unborn baby. Ritonavir may make birth pills for control or patches for the skin less efficient. Talk to your doctor about alternative contraceptive options like implants, injections, vaginal ring condoms, diaphragm cervical caps, and contraceptive sponges.


Inform your healthcare provider that you plan to or are breastfeeding. breastfeed. It isn't known whether Paxlovid could be absorbed into the milk of your baby. Consult your doctor regarding the best method to feed your child while you are taking this medicine.

How to take Paxlovid?

Follow the directions on your prescription label and go through all medication guides or instruction sheets. Make sure you use the medicine precisely as directed.

Use nirmatrelvir in conjunction with the drug ritonavir (two tablets of nirmatrelvir and one tablet of ritonavir) every day, twice for five consecutive days.If you have kidney issues, you should consult your physician. It could be necessary to take an additional dose.

Take Paxlovid immediately following the diagnosis of COVID-19. Do this within 5 days after the date that symptoms first begin to manifest.You can take Paxlovid without or with food.Take the tablets in one swallow and don't crush, chew, or break them.It is possible that you will require frequent tests of your blood to determine the liver's function.

If you are taking a ritonavir- or cobicistat-containing medicine to treat hepatitis C or the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), you should continue to take your medicine as prescribed by your healthcare provider.Speak to your doctor. If you don't feel better or have a feeling that is worse after 5 days,

Details on dosage

Usual Paxlovid Adult Dose for COVID-19 (FDA-approved)

Nirmatrelvir: 300 mg twice a day, orally
Ritonavir 100 mg orally twice daily
Therapy duration: 5 days

  • If you have kidney problems, the doctor you see might recommend a lower dose. Consult your doctor to make sure that you are receiving the right dose pack.
  • Nirmatrelvir should be administered along with ritonavir. The dosage comprises three tablets (2 nirmatrelvir 150-mg tablets and one tablet of ritonavir 100 mg), each of which must be administered in conjunction. Prescriptions should include the numeric dose of each active component in the product.
  • The treatment should begin in the earliest time possible following the diagnosis of COVID-19 or within the first 5 days from the onset of symptoms.
  • If hospitalization is needed in the event of severe or critical COVID-19 following treatment with this drug, the patient must finish the entire 5-day treatment program at the medical professional's instructions.

Usage: For the treatment of moderate to mild COVID-19 in adults who are at a high risk of progression to severe COVID-19. This includes hospitalization or even death.

Usual Pediatric Dose for COVID-19 (EUA)

for investigational use only.
Utilization: Patients 12 to 18 years old, weighing at least 40kg:
Nirmatrlvir: 300 mg taken orally twice daily.
Ritonavir 100 mg taken orally twice daily
Therapy duration: 5 days

  • If you suffer from kidney disease, your doctor might prescribe a lower dose. Discuss with your healthcare professional to ensure you get the proper dose pack.
  • It was reported that the US FDA has issued an EUA to permit the urgent usage of the unapproved medication nirmatrelvir, which is co-packaged with r to treat moderate to mild COVID-19 in those at risk of progressing to severe COVID-19, which could lead to death or hospitalization. This product is not recognized by the FDA. US FDA for this purpose.
  • Nirmatrelvir is required to be administered in conjunction with ritonavir. The dose comprises three tablets (2 nirmatrelvir 150-mg tablets and 1 tablet of ritonavir 100 mg), each of which must be administered in conjunction. The prescriptions must specify the numeric dosage for every active ingredient in the product.
  • This medication should be taken immediately following the diagnosis of COVID-19 or within the first 5 days from the onset of symptoms.
  • If hospitalization is needed in the event of severe or critical COVID-19 following treatment with this drug, the patient must finish the entire 5-day treatment course according to the health doctor's instructions.

What happens if I miss a dose?

If you do not take a dose of the drug within 8 hours from the time it is typically administered, you must take it whenever you remember. If you missed the dose for longer than eight hours, you should skip the missed dose and then take your next dose at the same time. Don't take two doses of Paxlovid at the same time.

What happens if I overdose?

For medical emergencies, seek emergency medical attention or contact the Poison Help line toll-free at 1-800-222-1222.

Side effects of Paxlovid

Contact emergency medical assistance when you are experiencing symptoms or warning signs (hives, difficulty breathing, swelling of your throat or face) or an extreme skin reaction (fever, sore throat, eye burning, ache, and a bloody or violet skin eruption with peeling and blisters).

Paxlovid could cause serious adverse side effects.

See your doctor right away. If you suffer from:

  • Liver problems can cause a loss of appetite. symptoms include discomfort in the stomach (upper right side), fatigue, itching, dark urine, clay-colored stool, and jaundice (yellowing of the eyes or skin).

Ritonavir alters the immune system and could cause a variety of adverse reactions (even months or even weeks after you've taken nirmatrelvir or nirmatre ritonavir). Inform your doctor when you experience:

  • Indications of a new infection: fever, night sweats, swollen glands, sores from a cold, cough, wheezing, weight loss, diarrhea
  • Difficulties swallowing or speaking; difficulties with balance, eye movement, and prickly or weak feelings; problems swallowing or speaking;
  • Swelling in your throat or neck (enlarged thyroid), menstrual cycles, impotence

Common negative side effects of the drug Paxlovid

  • Changes in your sense of taste
  • Diarrhea;
  • High blood pressure;
  • Muscle pain.

This isn't a complete list of all side effects, and other side effects could occur. Consult your physician to seek medical advice on the effects. You can report any side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Interaction with other drugs

There are times when it's not recommended to take certain medicines simultaneously. Certain medications can alter your blood levels from other medications you take, which could cause more side effects or make the medication less effective.

There are many drugs that can affect Paxlovid, and certain medicines should not be used in conjunction. Paxlovid may interfere with other medications and cause serious or life-threatening side effects or even death. Discuss with your doctor the other medicines you are taking. This includes over-the-counter and prescription medications, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Not all interactions are mentioned here.

Do not take Paxlovid if you are taking any of the following medicines: alfuzosin, amiodarone, apalutamide, carbamazepine, colchicine, dihydroergotamine, dronedarone, eletriptan, eplerenone, ergotamine, finerenone, flecainide, flibanserin, ivabradine, lomitapide, lovastatin, lumacaftor/ivacaftor, lurasidone, methylergonovine, midazolam (oral), naloxegol, naloxegol, naloxegol, phenobarbital, phenytoin, pimozide, primidone, propafenone, quinidine, ranolazine, rifampin, rifapentine, St. John's Wort (hypericum perforatum), sildenafil (Revatio(r), Liqrev(r) for pulmonary arterial hypertension, silodosin, simvastatin, sil

There are other drugs that could result in serious or life-threatening adverse effects when taken in conjunction with Paxlovid. It is vital to inform your doctor about the medications you take, as more laboratory tests or adjustments in dosage of your other medications could be required in the course of treatment with Paxlovid. Your doctor may also provide you with specific symptoms to look out for that could indicate you must reduce or stop taking any other medications.



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