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Zonisamide

Generic name: zonisamide [zoe-NIS-a-mide]
Names of brands: Zonegran, Zonisade
Dosage forms: oral capsule (100 mg; 25 mg; 50 mg); oral suspension (100 mg/5 mL).
Class of drug: carbonic anhydrase inhibitors for anticonvulsants

What is Zonisamide?

Zonisamide is a combination of other medications for treating partial seizures in teenagers and adults aged at least 16 years.Zonisamide can also be employed for other purposes that are not covered in this guideline.

Side effects of Zonisamide

Contact emergency medical assistance when you are experiencing symptoms that indicate an allergic reaction (hives, breathing difficulties, and swelling in your throat or face) or an extreme skin reaction (fever, sore throat, eye burning, ache, and red or purple skin itching, blisters, and peeling).

Inform your doctor immediately. If you notice any abrupt or new changes in your mood or behavior. This could include more or less severe mood swings, depression or anxiety, panic attacks, trouble sleeping, or if you are feeling uncontrollably angry, frustrated, or aggressive. unfocused, anxious, inactive, angry or have ideas of taking yourself or hurting yourself.

Zonisamide could cause serious adverse effects. Consult your physician immediately in the event that you experience:

  • Eye pain, redness, or any changes to your vision
  • Less sweating sensation, very hot
  • More or worsening seizures;
  • Any skin rash, regardless of how slight;
  • Indications and warning signs of metabolic acidosis (confusion, vomiting, and energy loss) irregular heartbeats, and confusion;
  • Symptoms of a blood cell disorder: fever, chills, and body aches; signs of an illness like flu symptoms and sores on your throat and mouth;
  • Indications of a kidney stone: pain in your lower back or lower back, blood in your stomach, pain in your urine, painful or difficult urine, and
  • Severe skin reaction, fever, sore throat, swelling of your tongue or face, burning eyes, skin irritation, and an irritated or purple eruption that can spread (especially in the face and the upper part of the body) and can cause blisters and peeling.

Common side effects of zonisamide include:

  • drowsiness, dizziness;
  • issues with memory or difficulty concentrating;
  • experiencing agitation or feeling angry;
  • Loss of coordination, difficulty walking,
  • Insomnia.

This isn't a complete list of all the side effects. Other side effects could occur. Contact your doctor to seek medical advice on the effects. You can report symptoms to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Warnings

Zonisamide use can result in permanent loss of vision. Tell your doctor immediately if you experience any redness, eye pain, or any changes to your vision.

Zonisamide could cause a severe skin reaction that may cause death. Contact your physician right now if you experience an itch or redness on your skin that spreads and causes blisters or peeling.Zonisamide can cause decreased sweating and an increase in body heat (fever). People who are exposed to hot conditions are more likely to suffer from this side effect.

Some people contemplate suicide when taking zonisamide. Keep an eye out for changes in mood or the symptoms. Family members or carers are also advised to be on the lookout for abrupt changes in your behavior.

Before you Take this Drug

It is not recommended to take zonisamide if you have an allergy to it.

It is possible that you will not be able to use zonisamide if you have experienced a severe reaction to sulfa-based drugs.

Speak to your doctor if you have had or have ever experienced:

  • Ammonia in high levels;
  • Diarrhea;
  • An issue with growth;
  • A bone disease that can cause weak or soft bones or low bone mineral density;
  • Mood swings, depression, or suicidal ideas or actions;
  • If you've had metabolic acidosis (too many acids in your blood),
  • If you've been on a ketogenic diet (high-fat, high-protein, or low-carb),
  • The liver condition
  • Kidney disease.

There are people who think about suicide when taking zonisamide. Your doctor should examine your improvement regularly. Keep an eye on changes in your mood or signs. Family members or carers are also required to be on the lookout for abrupt changes in your behavior.could cause harm to a newborn baby. Use birth control when you are taking zonisamide for up to one month following the last dose. Inform your doctor immediately when you become pregnant.

If you're pregnant and you are a registered mother, your name could be included on an ob-gyn registry to track any effects of the zonisamide on the infant.Consult your doctor for advice on whether it is safe to breastfeed while taking this medicine.

How to Take Zonisamide?

Follow the directions on your prescription label and go through all medication guides or instructions. The doctor might change the dosage. Follow the medication precisely as directed.It is possible to take zonisamide in combination with food or not. You should consume plenty of fluids when you take this medication.Suck the capsule whole, and don't crush, chew, break, or even open it.

Shake to mix the oral suspension (liquid). Take a dosage using the measuring device supplied (not an ordinary spoon).You'll need kidney function tests and blood tests prior to and during treatment with zonisamide.

The severity of your seizures may increase if you stop taking zonisamide suddenly. Talk to your doctor prior to taking the medication off. Follow the instructions of your doctor when tapering the dose.Don't share this medication with anyone else, even if they share similar symptoms to yours.Get rid of the suspension of oral medicine after 30 days, regardless of whether there is any remaining medicine in it.Keep at room temperature, free of heat, moisture, and light.

Details on Dosage

Usual Adult Dose for Seizures:

at 16 years old or older:
Initial dosage: 100 mg taken orally every day.
Titration: After two weeks of 100 mg/day, the dosage can be increased to 200 mg/day either as a single dose or as a divided dose (100 mg taken orally twice daily) for a minimum of two weeks. It may be upped to 300 mg/day and 400 mg/day in one daily dose or divided into two daily doses, keeping the dose stable for at least two weeks in order to reach a steady condition at every level.
Maintenance dose: 400 mg/day
Maximum dose: 600 mg/day
Comments:
This drug can be taken either with or without food.
Capsules must be swallowed whole.
Because of the lengthy half-life of this medication, it could take up to 2 weeks to reach steady-state levels once you have reached an unsteady dose or after the adjustment of dosage.
The doctor may want to extend the time of treatment in lower doses so that they can fully evaluate this medication at steady state (noting that a lot of adverse effects are more common in doses of 300 mg/day and beyond). While there is evidence of an increased reaction at doses that go beyond 200 mg/day, the difference is not significant, and studies on dose response have not yet been conducted.
Use: as an adjunctive therapy for treating partial seizures.

Usual Paediatric Dose for Seizures:

Ages less than 16 years old: not recommended. age Do not recommend it for those under 16 years of age.
16 years old or older: refer to adult dosage.

What Happens If I Miss a Dose?

It is important to take your medication in the shortest time possible. However, avoid your missed dose if it's close to the time of the next dose. Don't take two doses at once.

What Happens If I Overdose?

Get medical attention in an emergency or contact the poison help line at 1-800-222-1222.

The symptoms of an overdose can include an euphoric heart and feeling lightheaded. fainting, and shallow or slow breathing.

What Should be Avoided?

Avoid driving and other hazardous activities until you are aware of the effects of zonisamide. The way you react could be impaired.

Alcohol consumption with this medicine could cause adverse effects.

Interaction with Other Drugs

Combining zonisamide with other medications that cause drowsiness can increase the severity of this effect. Consult your physician before using zonisamide along with a sleep medication, painkiller, narcotic medication, or muscle relaxer medication for seizures or anxiety.

Other medications can affect Zonisamide, such as prescription and non-prescription medications, vitamins, and herbal products. Inform your physician about any other medications you take.

DRUG STATUS

Availability

Prescription only

Pregnancy & Lactation

CSA Schedule*

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