What is Allopurinol?
Allopurinol is a member of a class of drugs known as xanthine oxidase inhibitors. It is a drug that reduces the amount of uric acid in the body. Urinary acid levels that are high could trigger gout attacks or kidney stones.
Allopurinol is a medication used for treating the condition known as gout (a form of arthritis that causes uric acid, which is naturally found in our body, to accumulate in joints and trigger sudden flares of swelling, redness, pain, and heat in joints). Allopurinol is used to stop attacks of gout but not to treat them after they happen.
Allopurinol can also be used to treat the high levels of uric acid that accumulate in the bloodstream when tumours dissolve in patients suffering from certain kinds of cancer being treated with chemotherapy drugs. It can also be utilised to eliminate kidney stones that are coming to the surface in people with excessive levels of uric acid in their urine.
It is not recommended to make use of this medication if you have had any allergic reactions to allopurinol.
Allopurinol may decrease the number of blood vessels that help your body fight off infections. This could make it easier for you to lose blood from an injury or contract illness by being around people who are sick. Your blood might require regular testing. Visit your doctor regularly.
In rare instances, there is a risk that allopurinol could trigger an extremely allergic reaction. Stop taking this medication and contact your physician right away in the event of painful urinary tract, bloody urine, burning sensations in your eyes, swelling on your throat or face, skin redness, or a rash that grows and leads to blistering and peeling.
Do not drink alcohol. It could make your condition worse. Allopurinol can affect your reactions or thinking. Be cautious when you drive or perform things that require you to be aware.
Before you Take this Drug
Allopurinol is not a good choice if you have an allergy to it.
To ensure this medicine is suitable for you, inform your physician if you've previously had:
- Congestive heart failure;
- High blood pressure;
- If you're receiving chemotherapy
- If you are carrying a gene variation known as the hla-b*58 allele (your doctor will examine you to determine this),
- Liver disease liver disease
- Kidney disease.
Allopurinol could harm a newborn baby. Tell your doctor whether you are expecting or are planning to be pregnant.
Avoid breastfeeding during the course of this medication and for at least a week following the last dose.
How to Take Allopurinol?
Use allopurinol as directed by your physician. Follow the directions on the label of your prescription and study all prescription guides and instruction sheets. The doctor might change the dosage of your medication. The tablets should be taken by drinking a full glass of water. To lower the risk of developing kidney stones, drink between 8 and 10 glasses of fluid each day, unless your doctor advises you to drink a different amount. Consume with food if you experience stomach upset with allopurinol tablets. Allopurinol injections are injected into a vein by a healthcare practitioner. The injection is generally used if you are not able to take medication by mouth.
You might require regular medical tests while taking this medication, even if you show no signs or symptoms. The function of your liver and kidneys could also require examination. Your doctor may change your dose if your kidney function changes.
There are times when you may experience gout attacks as you begin taking tablets of allopurinol. Your physician may suggest a different Gout medication that you can take along with allopurinol. Take the medicine according to the directions.
Your symptoms might not improve for up to 2–6 months. Call your doctor if your symptoms do not improve after six weeks. It is possible that you need to adhere to specific diets to keep kidney stones from forming. Follow the instructions from your physician or dietitian. Know about the foods you should eat and avoid. Place it in a cool, dry place free of heat and moisture.
What Happens If I Miss a Dose?
As soon as you are able, but do not take the missed dose when it's almost time to take the next dose. Don't take two doses at a time.
Contact your doctor for advice when you do not make an appointment to receive an allopurinol injection.
What Happens If I Overdose?
Get medical attention in an emergency or contact the Poison Help line toll-free at 1-800-222-1222.
Avoid driving or engaging in hazardous activities until you are aware of how allopurinol affects your body. Your reaction could be affected. Beware of drinking alcohol.
Side Effects of Allopurinol
Take immediate medical attention when you notice symptoms that indicate an allergy reaction to the drug allopurinol (hives or breathing problems and swelling of your throat or face) or an extreme skin reaction (fever and sore throat, burnt eyes, irritation, and an ailment that is purple or red with peeling and blisters).
Get medical attention in the event of a serious drug reaction that could affect various parts of your body. Symptoms may include an itch and fever, swelling of the glands, muscle pains, abnormal bruising, severe weakness, or a discoloration of your eyes or skin.
Allopurinol can cause serious adverse reactions. Stop taking this medicine and consult your physician immediately if you suffer from:
- Any skin rash, regardless of how slight;
- Bleeding in the urine
- Inflammation of blood vessels such as tingling or numbness or a the skin, fever, headache or body aches sleepy sweats at night, losing weight and feeling fatigued or weak;
- Indications of signs or symptoms of infection include fever, chills, sore throats, body aches, fatigue, loss of appetite, bleeding, or bruising.
- liver issues loss of appetite and weight loss stomach discomfort (upper right side) Itching black urine, dark stools, stools that are coloured with clay, jaundice (yellowing of the eyes or skin)
Common side effects of Allopurinol could include:
- An increase in the frequency of Gout attacks after you begin taking this medicine
- Abnormal tests of liver function;
- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea; or
- Kidney issues: swelling, urination-less fatigue, or feeling tired or short of breath.
This isn't an exhaustive list of possible side effects, and other side effects could occur. Contact your doctor for advice regarding medical adverse effects. You can report adverse reactions to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Interaction with Other Drugs
Inform your doctor about any other medications you take, including:
- Azathioprine or mercaptopurine
- Medicine for cancer
- Other gout medicines
- An antibiotic like ampicillin or amoxicillin;
- A blood thinner, such as warfarin, Coumadin, or Jantoven; a diuretic, also known as a "water pill".
This list is not comprehensive. Other drugs can interact with allopurinol. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Some interactions with drugs are not listed here. are listed here.