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Generic Name: Nitrofurantoin [NYE-troe-fue-RAN-toin]
Names of Brands: Macrobid, Macrodantin, and Nitro Macro
The class of Drug: Urinary anti-infectives

What is Nitrofurantoin?

The antibiotic nitrofurantoin combats the growth of bacteria within the body.The drug nitrofurantoin can be used to treat urinary tract infections.The drug can also be used for reasons not mentioned in this medication guide.


It is not recommended to use nitrofurantoin in the event of an extreme kidney condition, urinary issues, an underlying jaundice issue, or liver problems that are caused by the use of nitrofurantoin.Don't take this medication. If your pregnancy is in the final two to four weeks of your pregnancy.

Before you Take this Drug

It is not recommended to use nitrofurantoin if you are allergic or suffer from:

  • Serious kidney diseases;

  • An occurrence of jaundice or liver disorders caused by taking nitrofurantoin

  • If you're having a harder time urinating than usual or infrequently,

  • If it is the final two to four weeks of your pregnancy.

Don't take nitrofurantoin if you are in the final two to four weeks of your pregnancy.

To ensure that nitrofurantoin is suitable for you, inform your physician if you suffer from:

  • Kidney disease;

  • Anemia;

  • Diabetes;

  • An imbalance of electrolytes, an electrolyte imbalance, or a vitamin B deficiency

  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency;

  • Any debilitating illness of any kind.

FDA pregnancy category A This medication is not thought to harm an unborn child during the early stages of pregnancy. Consult your doctor if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant while receiving treatment.

The drug can be passed into breast milk and could cause harm to a nursing infant. It is not recommended to breastfeed when you take this medication.

Nitrofurantoin shouldn't be given to a child who is less than one month old.

How to take Nitrofurantoin?

Follow the directions on the prescription label. Don't take this medication in greater or lesser quantities or for a longer time than the recommended time.Incorporate nitrofurantoin into your diet.

Mix the suspension (liquid) well before measuring a dose. Take measurements of liquid medication using the dosing syringe that comes with it or with a measuring spoon or medicine cup.

If you do not have an instrument to measure dosages, get one from your doctor.

You can mix your liquid with milk, water, or the juice of a fruit to help you swallow it. Consume the entire mix immediately.

Make sure to take this medicine for the entire prescribed duration. The symptoms could improve before the infection is cleared completely. In addition, skipping doses could increase the risk of a subsequent illness that is not able to be treated with antibiotics. Nitrofurantoin is not a treatment for viral infections, like the common cold or flu.The usual dose of nitrofurantoin is between 3 and 7 days.If you take this medication for a long time, you might require regular medical examinations in the office of your doctor.Nitrofurantoin could cause unexpected results in certain laboratory tests for sugar in urine. Inform any physician who treats patients that you're using nitrofurantoin.Keep at room temperature, free of heat, moisture, and light.

What Happens if I Miss the Dose?

You should take the missed dose as quickly as you can remember. Avoid your missed dose if it's nearing the time for the next dose. Don't take any extra medication to make up for the missed dose.

What Happens If I Overdose?

Get medical attention in an emergency or contact the poison help line at 1-800-222-1222.

What Should be Avoided?

Diarrhea can be caused by antibiotics and could be an indication of a new infection. If you are experiencing diarrhea that is swollen or contains blood, consult your physician. Don't take any medication to treat diarrhea or bloating unless the doctor advises you to.

Be wary of using antacids unless you have your physician's guidance. Make sure you use only the type of antacid that your doctor suggests. Certain antacids may cause problems for your body's ability to absorb nitrofurantoin.

Side effects Of Nitrofurantoin

Contact a medical professional immediately. If you experience any of the following symptoms that indicate an allergic reaction to nitrofurantoin, symptoms of hives: difficulty breathing and swelling of your lips, face, or tongue.

See your doctor right away. If you suffer from:

  • Diarrhea that is either watery or bloody

  • Suddenly experiencing tension, chest pain, wheezing, or hacking;

  • New or worsening cough; difficulty breathing;

  • Chills, fever, fatigue, body aches, and weight loss that is not explained;

  • Tingling, numbness, or discomfort in your hands or feet;

  • Liver disorders: nausea, stomach discomfort, itching, fatigue feeling, appetite loss, dark urine, stools that are clay-colored, jaundice (yellowing of the eyes or skin), as well as

  • Lupus-like Syndrome: joint swelling or pain, accompanied by swelling of glands, fever, chest pain, muscle aches, nausea, strange thoughts or behavior, and skin patches that are uneven in color.

The risk of serious side effects is higher in older patients and those who are sick or have a debilitating condition.

Common nitrofurantoin side effects are:

  • Headache, dizziness;

  • Gas, stomach upset;

  • Mild diarrhea mild diarrhea

  • Vaginal itching or discharge.

This is not a comprehensive list of possible side effects, and other side effects could be present. Consult your physician to seek medical advice on adverse effects. You can report symptoms to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Details on Dosage

Usual Adult Dose for Cystitis:

Regular release: 50–100 mg, orally, 4 times per day for a week or until 3 days following the day that the urine has been sterile.

Dual-release 100 mg, taken daily, orally, for 7 days

Usual Adult Dose for Cystitis Prophylaxis:

Regular release: 50–100 mg once orally at night

Usual Pediatric Dose for Cystitis:

Regular release:

1 month and older, up to 5 mg/kg/day (up to 400 mg/day) orally, in 4 divided doses

Dual release:

Over 12 years old more than 12 years old: 100 mg every day, twice per day for 7 days

Usual Pediatric Dose for Cystitis Prophylaxis:

Regular release:

1 month and older 1 month or older: between 1 and 2 mg/kg/day (up to 100 mg/day) orally in 1 to 2 split doses

Interaction with Other Drugs

Other medications can be incompatible with nitrofurantoin, such as prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Be sure to inform all your medical professionals about any medication you are taking currently and all medicines that you decide to stop or begin taking.



Prescription only

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