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Afrezza

Generic Name: Human Insulin
Form of Dosage: Inhalation Powder
Drug Class: Insulin

Active Ingredient: Human insulin
Inactive Ingredients: Fumaryl diketopiperazine, Polysorbate 80

What is Afrezza?

Afrezza is a human-made insulin that is inhaled through the lungs and used to treat high blood sugar in diabetics.

Afrezza is not recommended as a substitute for long-acting insulin. Afrezza is only suitable when used in conjunction with long-acting insulin by those who suffer from type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Afrezza is not a treatment to treat diabetes ketoacidosis.

It isn't clear whether Afrezza is secure and efficient for smokers. Afrezza is not recommended by smokers or those who have stopped smoking recently (less than six months).

Warning

Afrezza can cause serious side effects, including:

Do not take Afrezza when you suffer from longer-term (chronic) lung conditions like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Before you begin this medication, the doctor you see will perform a breathing test to determine how well your lungs function.

What Should be Avoided

Do not use Afrezza if you: Are suffering from chronic lung conditions like asthma and COPD.

Are you allergic to human insulin as well as any other components in Afrezza? Refer to the end of the medication guide for the complete list of ingredients.

While using Afrezza, do not Operate or drive heavy machinery until you understand the extent to which Afrezza impacts you.

Consume alcohol or take prescription drugs that include alcohol, Smoke.

Before You Take This Drug

Before you use Afrezza, inform your doctor about your medical condition, such as:

Have lung problems, such as COPD or asthma.

Have you ever had or suffered from lung cancer?

Are you taking any inhalation-based medications?

Smoke or recently quit smoking cigarettes

Are you suffering from liver or kidney problems?

Are you expecting, planning to become pregnant, or nursing? Afrezza could cause harm to your breastfeeding baby.

Interaction With Other Drugs

Discuss with your doctor any medications you are taking, including prescription and non-prescription supplements such as vitamins and herbal supplements.

Before you begin taking Afrezza, discuss with your physician the possibility of low blood sugar levels and how to treat them.

How to Take This Drug?

Check out the in-depth Instructions for Use included in your Afrezza.

You should take Afrezza exactly as your doctor recommends. Your doctor should inform you how much medicine to take and the best time to use it.

Be aware of the strength Afrezza gives you. Don't alter the quantity of Afrezza you are using unless your doctor advises you to. Have Afrezza with you at the start of your dinner.

Check your blood sugar levels. Ask your healthcare professional about what your blood sugar levels should be and when to examine them. Be sure to keep Afrezza and all other medicines out of the reach of children. The dose you are taking could need to change due to:

A change in the intensity of exercise or physical activity, weight loss or gain of health, stress changes in diet, or as a result of any other medications you take.

Details on Dosage

Usual Adult Dose for Diabetes Type 2:

Insulin-naive: Start with a dose of 4 units through oral inhalation prior to the beginning of each meal.
Maintenance dose Modify the dose according to your individual's metabolic requirements, glucose monitoring results, and the goals of glycemic control.
Moving from subcutaneous mealtime insulin:
Dose conversion in the following manner:
4 units of inhaled insulin replace the subcutaneous insulin for meals.
Eight units of insulin inhaled replace five to eight units of subcutaneous insulin for mealtimes.
12 units of inhaled insulin substitute for 9–12 units of subcutaneous insulin for meals.
16 units of inhaled insulin substitutes and between 13 and 16 units of subcutaneous insulin at mealtimes
20 units of inhaled insulin substitutes between 17 and 20 subcutaneous mealtime units
24 units of insulin inhaled replace 21–24 units of subcutaneous insulin for mealtimes.
Switching to Subcutaneous Premixed Insulin:
Estimate the dose for injected meals by dividing the daily total pre-mixed insulin dose injected in half (half will constitute the daily dose for mealtime, and the other half is your daily dose of basal).
Divide the daily dose for mealtime equally across three meals during the day. Make use of the table of dose conversion above.
The other half of the dose of daily injection is insulin basal injection.

Comments:

Adjustments to dosages may be required to accommodate changes in physical activity and meal schedules or in the case of acute illness.
Utilize one inhalation per cartridge. Doses exceeding eight units may require several cartridges.
Monitor blood glucose levels, particularly in patients who require large doses. If glucose control isn't maintained with increased doses, you may want to consider subcutaneous insulin.

Inhaled insulin is an insulin with a fast-acting effect to be used by adults with diabetes mellitus for improvement in glycemic control.

Usual Adult Dose for Diabetes Type 1:

Insulin-naive:
The first dose is 4 units by inhalation into the mouth at the beginning of each meal.
Maintenance dose: adjust dose based on the individual's needs for metabolic health, glucose monitoring results, and goals for glycemic control.

Dose conversion in the following manner:

4 units of insulin inhaled replace as much as 4 units of subcutaneous mealtime insulin.
8 units of insulin inhaled replace five to eight units of subcutaneous insulin for mealtimes.
12 units of insulin inhaled 9–12 units of subcutaneous mealtime insulin
16 units of inhaled insulin substitutes between 13 and 16 units of subcutaneous mealtime insulin
20 units of inhaled insulin substitute the subcutaneous 17–20 units of insulin at mealtimes
24 units of inhaled insulin are equivalent to 21–24 units of subcutaneous insulin for mealtimes.

Switching to Subcutaneous Premixed Insulin:
Estimate the mealtime dose injected by dividing the daily total dose of insulin pre-mixed and injected by half (half will constitute the daily total dose, and the other half is your daily dose of basal).
Divide the total daily dose for mealtime equally across three meals during the day. Use the dose conversion table in the above
Give the remaining half of the daily dose in the form of insulin basal.

Comments:

Dose adjustments are often required to accommodate changes in physical activity and eating patterns or when there is an acute illness.
Utilize one inhalation per cartridge. Doses exceeding eight units require several cartridges.
Monitor blood glucose, especially for patients who require high doses. If blood glucose control cannot be maintained with increased doses, think about subcutaneous mealtime insulin.

Use Insulin inhalation is a fast-acting insulin that is used in adults with diabetes mellitus for improvement in glycemic control.

Side Effects of Afrezza

Afrezza could result in serious side effects that could lead to death, such as:

Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia): Headache, sweating blurred vision or distorted speech, shakes, fast heartbeat, anxiety, irritability, mood changes, and hunger Reduced lung function. Your healthcare provider will determine how well your lungs are functioning before you begin using Afrezza, six months after you start using it, and every year following the first.

Lung cancer: In studies in patients who suffer from chronic diabetes, the cancer developed in a smaller number of patients who took Afrezza than in people who were on other diabetes medications. There were only a few instances to determine if lung cancer was linked to Afrezza. If you are diagnosed with lung cancer, it is your responsibility and that of your physician to decide whether you need to take this drug.

Diabetic ketoacidosis Talk to your medical professional if you suffer from a disease. Your Afrezza dosage or the frequency at which you monitor your blood sugar could require a change.

A severe allergic reaction (whole-system reaction). Take immediate medical assistance. If you experience any of the following signs or symptoms of an allergic reaction:

A rash that covers your entire body, breathing issues, an increased heart rate, or sweating.

Low potassium levels in the blood (hypokalemia).

Heart Failure: The use of certain diabetes medications called thiazolidinediones, or TZDs," with Afrezza may cause heart problems in certain individuals. This could occur even if you've never experienced heart failure or heart issues before. If you are already suffering from heart problems, it could get worse when you are taking TZDs along with Afrezza. Your doctor should be monitoring you closely when you are taking TZDs using this medication. Inform your doctor that you are experiencing any new or more serious symptoms of heart disease, including:

A shortness of breath or swelling of your feet or ankles, and a rapid weight increase.
Treatments that include TZDs and Afrezza could be modified or halted by your physician when you are experiencing an increase in heart failure or a worsening.

Trouble breathing, breathlessness quick heartbeat and swelling of your tongue, face, or throat; sweating; extreme sleepiness; confusion; dizziness.

A low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), cough, and sore throat.

These aren't all the possible side effects associated with Afrezza. Contact your doctor for advice from a medical professional regarding possible side effects. You can report any side effects to the FDA by calling 800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088)

DRUG STATUS

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Prescription only

Pregnancy & Lactation

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