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Acetazolamide (oral)

Generic Name: Acetazolamide [a-seet-a-zole-a-mide]
classes of Drugs: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors for anticonvulsantscarbonic anhydrase inhibitors

What is Acetazolamide?

Acetazolamide is a treatment for the condition of edema (fluid retention) that is caused by heart failure as well as other drugs. It is also utilized for treating seizures (e.g., petit mal, non-localized seizures). Also, it is employed to treat open-angle primary and secondary glaucoma as well as acute angle-closure glaucoma prior to surgery to decrease pressure inside the eye. 

It is also utilized in order to reduce or eliminate the signs of mountain sickness among climbers.

This medication is only available upon prescription by your doctor.

Before you take this drug

When deciding whether to take any medicine, the dangers of using the medication need to be considered in relation to the benefits it can bring. It is a choice both you and your doctor must make. To determine the appropriate medicine, the following should be taken into consideration:

Allergies

Discuss with your doctor if you experience any unexpected reactions to this medicine or any other medication. Inform your healthcare specialist if you suffer from any other allergies, like food dyes, chemicals, preservatives, or even animals. If you are using non-prescription medications, make sure to look over the label or ingredients attentively.

Pediatric

Studies of the appropriate nature haven't been conducted on the relation between age and the effect of acetazolamide within the child group. It is not clear if safety or efficacy have been proven.

Geriatric

It is not clear what information exists on the connection between age and the effects of acetazolamide on the elderly.

Breast feeding

There is no research on women that can determine the risk to infants when taking the medication while nursing. Consider the possible benefits versus the risks that could be associated with using this medication during breastfeeding.

How to take Acetazolamide?

The medicine should be taken according to the instructions of your physician

. Take only the amount prescribed by your doctor. Do not use it frequently or for a longer period than what your doctor has prescribed.

Details on Dosage

The dosage of this medication is different for various patients. Take your prescription from your physician or follow the instructions on the prescription label. This list contains only the most common doses of the medicine. If you have a dose that differs, don't alter it until your physician recommends it.

The quantity of medication you consume is contingent on how strong the medication is. In addition, the quantity of doses that you take each day, the interval between doses, and the duration of time that you use the medication will depend on the condition that you're treating with the drug.

  • For oral dosage forms (tablets): 

  • For congestive heart failure: 

  • Adults: start with 250 to 325 milligrams (mg) daily early in the morning. Your physician may alter the dose based on your needs.

  • The dosage and use for children must be determined by a doctor.

  • In the case of edema brought on by other medications: 

  • Adults: 250 to 375 milligrams (mg) daily over a period of 1 or 2 days with an unrest day in between.

  • The dosage and use for children must be evaluated by a doctor.

  • For mountain sickness: 

  • Adults: 500–1000 milligrams (mg) in doses divided that are taken between 24 and 48 hours prior to climbing. And then for a further 48 hours when at the highest altitude, or whenever needed.

  • The dosage and use for children must be determined by your physician.

  • To treat open-angle glaucoma: 

  • Adults-- at first, 250 milligrams (mg) per day your physician may alter your dosage as necessary. The dose should typically not be greater than one gram (g) every day.

  • The dosage and use for children must be supervised by your physician.

  • To treat acute and secondary closed-angle glaucoma 

  • Adults: 250 milligrams (mg) every four hours or two times per y. Your physician may alter your dosage if needed.

  • Use and dosage for children should be determined by your physician.

  • For seizures (acetazolamide alone): 

  • Adults-- the dose is determined by the body's weight and should be approved by a doctor. The usual dose is between 8 and 30 milligrams (mg) per kilogram (kg) of body weight. This is administered in a divided dosage. The doctor can adjust the dosage as required. But it is typically not greater than one gram (g) daily.

  • Use and dosage for children should be determined by your physician.

  • For seizures (in conjunction with the other medications to treat seizures): 

  • Adults: 250 milligrams (mg) daily. Your physician may alter the dosage if needed.

  • The dosage and use for children must be determined by a doctor.

What if I miss a dose?

If you are missing a dose of this medication, be sure to take it as soon as possible. But if you find it close to the time for the next dose, you can skip the dose you missed and then go back to your normal dosing regimen. Don't double-dose.

Storage

Keep the medication in a tightly sealed container at room temperature, far from moisture, heat, and lighting. Be sure to keep the medicine from becoming frozen. 

Be sure to keep it out of kids' reach.

Don't keep old medicine or medications that are no longer needed.

Consult your physician about what you can do with medicines you never take.

Acetazolamide is a dangerous substance.

It is crucial that you have your doctor examine your progress regularly

to ensure that the medicine you are taking is working effectively. Urine and blood tests could be required to determine undesirable side effects. 

This medication can trigger serious allergic reactions to your skin (e.g., stevens-johnson syndrome, stevens-johnson, and toxic epidermal necrosis). Talk to your physician about the appearance of blisters, peeling or loosening of skin, colds and coughs, diarrhea or the sensation of itching, joint or muscle discomfort, irritated eyes that are red or red skin lesions usually with a purple-cultured center sore throat, sores that are ulcerated, small white spots that appear in your mouth or on your lips, or an unusual feeling of fatigue or weakness. 

Consult your physician right now if you feel an ache or tenderness in your stomach area, pale stool, or dark urine. Also, you may experience a lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, or yellow eyes or skin. They could be signs of the liver's problem.

The medicine could cause severe allergic reactions, like anaphylaxis. This may be life-threatening and needs urgent medical treatment. Consult your physician right away if you experience chest tightness, coughing, trouble swallowing, dizziness, rapid heartbeat, hives, irritation to the skin, swelling or puffiness of the eyelids, on the face, around the eyes, and lips, breathing problems, as well as abnormal fatigue or weakening. 

Talk to your doctor immediately if you notice urine that is bloody, nausea and vomiting, pain in the groyne area or the genitals, or, more recently, a painful back pain beneath the ribs. This could be a sign of kidney stones. 

Talk to your physician immediately if you experience tension or chest pain symptoms of hoarseness, chills, cough, and fever, with or without chills, general feelings of weakness or fatigue or headaches, back pain or side pain, difficulty or painful urination, sores or sores in the throat, ulcers or bleeding spots that appear in your mouth, painful or swollen glands, breathing difficulties, abnormal bleeding or bruises, or a sudden fatigue or fatigue. They could indicate severe blood issues. (e.g., agranulocytosis, agranulocytosis, or aplastic anemia).

If you take this medication in conjunction with aspirin, it can cause changes in consciousness, vomiting, and rapid and shallow breathing. Difficulty breathing or the loss of weight. Consult your physician if you have questions concerning this. 

Don't abruptly discontinue using the medicine without consulting your physician

. A sudden stop in the use of this medicine could result in your seizures returning or becoming more frequent. Your physician may advise you to gradually decrease your dosage prior to stopping the medication completely. 

Avoid taking other prescriptions without discussing them with your physician. These include prescription and non-prescription (over-the-counter) medications as well as herbal or vitamin supplements.

Side effects of Acetazolamide

In addition to their beneficial results, medicines can produce unwanted side effects. While not all negative side effects are likely to occur, if they do, they might require medical attention. 

Talk to your doctor or nurse right away

if you experience any of these adverse effects:

Mild effects

  • The black stools are tarry and black.

  • Peeling, blistering, or a loosening

  • Urine is stained with blood.

  • Bloody nose

  • Change in consciousness

  • The chest may be tight or hurt

  • Chills

  • Stool with a clay color

  • The confusion

  • Hoarseness or cough

  • Urine that is dark

  • Diarrhea

  • Trouble with swallowing

  • Dizziness

  • Drowsiness

  • The fever

  • Frequent urination

  • Migraine

  • Heavier menstrual periods

  • Itching the skin

  • More volume of pale, less dilute urine

  • Itching

  • Muscle or joint pain

  • Loss of appetite

  • Loss of consciousness

  • Side, lower back, or side

  • Tremors in the muscles

  • Nausea

  • There is no movement or muscle tone.

  • Urination that is painful or hard to urinate

  • Tiny red spots on the skin

  • The appearance of puffiness or swelling around the eyelids, on the lips, around the face, or on the tongue

  • Rash

  • Red eyes that have been irritated and red

  • Red skin lesions that are often purple-colored  centers

  • Insanity

  • Seizures

  • Sore throat

  • Ulcers, sores, or white spots that appear in the mouth or around the lips

  • Cramps, stomach cramps, or pain

  • Rapid decrease in the quantity of urine

  • Sugar in urine

  • Swollen or painful glands

  • Difficulty breathing

  • Unpleasant breath smell

  • Unusual bleeding or bruising

  • Unusual drowsiness or dullness, fatigue, weakness, or the feeling of being sluggish

  • Uncommon tiredness or fatigue

  • Bloody vomiting

  • Weight loss

  • Skin or eyes with yellow hues

There are some side effects that can occur that usually don't require medical treatment. They may fade or disappear during treatment while your body adjusts to it. Additionally, your health care specialist may give you suggestions to minimize or eliminate certain side effects. Talk to your healthcare expert if any of these adverse reactions listed above persist, cause discomfort, or if there are any concerns about the following:

Adverse effects 

  • The sensation of burning, crawling, itching, and tingling sensations "pins and needles", or tingling sensations

  • Changes in vision

  • Constant buzzing or ringing or another unidentified sound inside the ear

  • Hearing loss

  • Increased sensitivity of skin cells

  • The skin. It may also be a discoloration or redness. The skin

  • Severe sunburn

Some other side effects not listed can also happen in certain patients. If you experience any additional symptoms, consult your doctor.

Interaction with other drugs

While certain medications should not be combined in any way, in other instances, two medications can be combined, even though interactions could occur. If this happens, the doctor might decide to alter the dosage or take other measures as needed. When using this medication, it is essential to let your doctor know if you're taking any of the drugs mentioned below. These interactions were determined based on the potential impact they could have and may not be all-encompassing.

The use of this medication together with the following medications is not advised. The doctor could decide not to treat you using this medication or to alter another medication you are taking.

  • Methylamine

Combining this medicine with one of these medications is generally not advised. However, it is possible to do so in certain situations. If two medicines are prescribed at the same time and your physician recommends a change in the amount or frequency with which you are taking one or both,

  • Amphetamine

  • Arsenic trioxide

  • Aspirin

  • Benzphetamine

  • Carbamazepine

  • Dextroamphetamine

  • Digitalis

  • Droperidol

  • Levomethadyl

  • Lisdexamfetamine

  • Lithium

  • Memantine

  • Methamphetamine

  • Methotrexate

  • Porfimer

  • Primidone

  • Proscillaridin

  • Quinidine

  • Sotalol

  • Topiramate

Utilizing this medication in conjunction with one or more of these medicines can increase the chance of experiencing certain adverse consequences; however, taking both medicines could be the most effective option for you. If the two medicines are prescribed for use together, your doctor might alter the dosage or how frequently you take either or both drugs.

Interactions with alcohol, food, and tobacco

Certain medications should not be consumed when eating foods or eating specific types of foods, as interactions could take place. Smoking or drinking alcohol in conjunction with some medicines could result in interactions. Consult your physician about when you take your medication if you are taking it with alcohol, food, or tobacco.

Other Medical Problems

Any other medical conditions could impact the effectiveness of this medication. It is important to tell your physician if you suffer from any other medical conditions, particularly:

  • Adeno-glial problem.

  • Glaucoma, no congestive angle closure.

  • Hyperkalemia (low concentrations of potassium in the blood).

  • Hypernatremia (low sodium levels present in the blood).

  • Kidney disease

  • Liver illness (e.g., cirrhosis, liver disease).

  • Metabolic acidosis: this should not be employed by patients suffering from this condition.

  • Problems with the lungs (e.g., emphysema)—use with caution. It could make the condition more severe.

DRUG STATUS

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Prescription only

Pregnancy & Lactation

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